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    語法考點薈萃--強調句

    來源:教師招聘網  時間:2021-02-22 18:12:49

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    1.強調句的類型

    (1)用It is / was…that / who…句型表示強調。

    被強調的部分(通常是句子的主語、狀語、賓語或賓語補足語)放在is / was的后面,如被強調的是人,則后面可用who,whom等代替。

    It was an old friend that / who he met in the park yesterday.

    (2)not … until …句型的強調句

    句型為:It is / was not until + 被強調部分 + that + 其他部分。例:

    普通句:He didn’t go to bed until/ till his wife came back.

    強調句:It was not until his wife came back that he went to bed.

    注意:此句型只用until,不用till。但如果不是強調句型,till,until可通用,因為句型中It is/ was not… 已經是否定句了,that后面的從句要用肯定句,切勿再用否定句了。

    (3)謂語動詞的強調

    It is / was … that … 結構不能強調謂語,如果需要強調謂語時,用助動詞do / does或did。

    Do sit down. 請坐。

    He did write to you last week. 上周他確實給你寫了信。

    Do be careful when you cross the street. 過馬路時,務必(千萬)要小心啊!

    注意:此種強調只用do/ does和did,沒有別的形式;過去時用did,后面的謂語動詞用原形。

    (4)從句的強調

    ①強調狀語從句

    I came home late because it was raining hard.

    It was because it was raining hard that I came home late.

    (注意:被強調的原因狀語從句只能用because引導,不能用as或since引導)

    ②強調主語從句

    What you said really made us sad.

    It was what you said that really made us sad.

    2.強調句型的判斷

    把“It,be,that”去掉,如果剩余部分句子結構仍然完整(被強調部分要還原到原位置),那么這個句子就是強調句;如果句子不完整,則不是強調句。例:

    (1) It is he who/ that often helps me with my English.

    (2) It is on the hillside that we plant trees every year.

    (3) It was because of bad weather that the football match had to be put off.

    分析:去掉It is/ was... that/ who 句子后結構仍然完整,句意仍明確,都是強調句。

    (4) It was 9 o’clock when we came back.

    (5) It was 3 hours since we had come back.

    分析:在上面例句中若去掉It was... when / before / since等后,句子結構就不完整,而且強調句型的后半句只能由that/who引導,所以不是強調句。

    3.強調句型注意事項

    (1)句首詞用“It”,不能用“This”,“That”等。

    (2)若原句的謂語動詞用了現在時或將來時,則用is;若原句的謂語動詞用了過去時或過去完成時,則用was。

    (3)被強調的部分如果是代詞,強調主語用主格,強調賓語用賓格。例:

    ① It was him that / who / whom I met in the street yesterday.

    ② It was I who / that made that decision.

    (4)連接詞一般用that,當強調部分是人時,既可用that也可用who。特別注意當強調部分是時間狀語或地點狀語時,不能用when或where。例:

    It was on Oct 1st, 1949 that People’s Republic of China was founded.

    (5)主謂一致問題:

    被強調的主語要和that后面的謂語動詞在數上保持一致。

    (6)not… until 結構的強調:

    強調“not…until”引導的時間狀語時,要用“it is/was not until…that…”結構,that后面的句子要用肯定式,且須用陳述句語序。例:

    We did not get off the bus until it stopped.

    It was not until it stopped that we got off the bus.

    【典型例題】

    It was playing computer games _____ cost the boy plenty of time _____ he ought to have spent doing his homework.

    A. that; that B. which; that C. which; when D. that; when

    【答案】A。解析:考查強調句型和定語從句。It is/was被強調成分that/who其它成分;這是強調句型的基本結構。強調句型最大的特點就是把it is/was…that/who去掉,句子仍然成立。第一空強調playing computer games.第二空是定語從句,that指代先行詞plenty of time作為spend的賓語。故選A。

     

    (責任編輯:岳曉明)

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